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Classification of material and structure of supercapacitor

Release time:2021-11-29 16:22    views:118

The structural classification of supercapacitors electrode materials can be divided into three categories: carbon materials, conductive polymers and metal oxides. Because the quality of the electrode will directly affect the performance of the capacitor, it is an important support for the supercapacitor. Therefore, high-quality and cheap electrode materials have always been sought after by people. Next, I will talk about the influence of different electrode materials on the performance of supercapacitor from the aspect of electrode material selection.


Supercapacitor


1. In terms of the selection time of carbon material for the electrode of supercapacitor, carbon material can be said to be the earliest used. Because of its low price and excellent performance, it is valued. From the application of carbon materials to now, it has taken more than 60 years. The development process during this period can be described as arduous. Carbon materials have a huge specific surface area, which means that the greater the capacitance


2. The reason why activated carbon is selected as the electrode material of supercapacitor is that activated carbon has high conductivity. We know that as an activated carbon material, the conductivity decreases with the increase of the surface area of the material. Although the activated carbon material has a high specific surface area, its surface area is very low, so it will have a high conductivity


3. Because carbon nanotubes have the advantages of very good conductivity, high crystallinity and large specific surface area, it is an excellent choice to use carbon nanotubes as the electrode material of supercapacitors. Because the surface of carbon nanotubes has a large specific surface area and rich functional groups, it has a very strong ability to adsorb charges and form electric double layers. It not only has the special effect of electric double layer capacitor, but also has the ability of oxidation and reduction. Therefore, the ability to absorb charge increases. According to statistics, after absorbing a large number of functional groups, carbon nanotubes with increased specific surface area have about 30% more charge than activated carbon. And the number of repeated cycles will also increase significantly.


4. Metal oxides in the 1990s, scientists showed through a large number of experimental phenomena that some metal oxides also have strong oxidation and can be used as electrode materials for supercapacitors. For example, the capacitance reserve of MnO2 electrode material prepared by electrochemical deposition is more than 40% higher than that of conductive polymer. Moreover, after 2500 times of charge and discharge, the attenuation of capacitance is less than 7%. This is a metal oxide as an electrode


The biggest advantage is that it consumes little. Just like the working principle of double-layer capacitor, its conductive principle is to store energy through the oxidation-reduction of conductive polymer on the electrode. After the redox reaction, a large number of n-type and p-type doping can be formed on the polymer surface, which makes it store high-density charges, so it will produce a certain scale of capacitance.


1. Conductive polymer is just like the working principle of pseudocapacitor. Its conductive principle is to store energy through the oxidation-reduction of conductive polymer on the electrode. After the redox reaction, a large number of n-type and p-type doping can be formed on the polymer surface, which makes it store high-density charges, so it will produce a certain scale of capacitance. At present, conductive polymer electrode materials are generally divided into three categories.


First, both electrodes are n-doped.


Second, both electrodes are p-doped.


Third, there are two kinds of electrodes, one is n-type doping and the other is p-type doping.


And the third is the electrode with two different doping types, which has stronger adsorption capacity for cation and anion. Therefore, the third mixed doping type will greatly enhance the ability of capacitor to store electric energy. Although it has a strong ability to store electric energy and a wide temperature range, its cost is very high, and its varieties and types are far less than those made of activated carbon materials


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