Principle of supercapacitor: it is a new energy storage device between battery and traditional capacitor. It has Faraday class super capacitance, which is 2000 ~ 6000 times larger than that of electrolytic capacitor with the same volume. According to different mechanism of storing electric energy, supercapacitor can be divided into electric double-layer capacitor and pseudo capacitor:
① Principle of electric double-layer capacitor: electric double-layer capacitor is a new component that stores energy through the interface double layer formed between electrode and electrolyte. When the electrode is in contact with electrolyte, due to Coulomb force, intermolecular force and atomic force, there is a stable and opposite double-layer charge at the solid-liquid interface, which is called interface double layer.
② Principle of pseudo capacitor: also known as Faraday quasi capacitor, it is a highly reversible chemical adsorption / desorption or oxidation / reduction reaction on the surface of electrode material or two-dimensional or quasi two-dimensional space of bulk phase, resulting in capacitance related to electrode charging potential
Electric double layer supercapacitor
Application of Supercapacitors: supercapacitors, with their many advantages, have been widely concerned by people once they came out, and have been successfully applied in many fields, such as acting as backup power supply for electronic products such as memory, computer, timer and so on; Used as power supply for electric toy owners, starting power in internal combustion engine and auxiliary power supply of solar cells, the development of supercapacitors is gradually entering a mature period.
① Consumer electronics: super capacitor has high energy storage, long cycle life and light weight. It can be used as standby power supply for memory, microcomputer, system motherboard and clocks
② Electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles: the super capacitor can better meet the power demand of electric vehicles during starting, acceleration and climbing. If it is used together with the power battery, it can reduce the damage to the battery caused by high current charging and discharging, prolong the service life of the battery, and recover the instantaneous energy into the super capacitor through the regenerative braking system to improve the energy utilization rate.
③ Diesel locomotive start: to solve the problem of energy waste caused by idle parking. Use a small battery in parallel with a super capacitor to replace the original battery to provide power for vehicle starting. The mass of super capacitor battery pack is only 1 / 3 of that of traditional vehicle battery, which can increase the starting torque of starter by 50%, and the starting speed is also increased.
④ Power system: supercapacitors can also be used for energy storage in distributed power grid. The system uses multiple groups of supercapacitors to store energy in the form of electric field energy. When the energy is urgently lacking or needed, the stored energy is released through the control unit to accurately and quickly compensate the energy required by the system, so as to realize the balance and stable control of electric energy